Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE): Scavenger of Peroxynitrite In Vitro and In Sepsis Models
Shock, 2014 Mar 21
Excessive free radical production by immune cells has been linked to cell death and tissue injury during sepsis. Peroxynitrite is a short-lived oxidant and a potent inducer of cell death that has been identified in several pathological conditions. CAPE is an active component of honeybee products and exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities. The present study examined the ability of CAPE to scavenge peroxynitrite in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages stimulated with LPS/IFN-γ, was used as an in vitro model. Conversion of 123-dihydrorhodamine (123-DHR) to its oxidation product 123-rhodamine was used to measure peroxynitrite production. Two mouse models of sepsis (endotoxemia and cecal ligation and puncture), were used as in vivo models. The level of serum 3-nitrotyrosine, an in vivo marker of peroxynitrite.
The results demonstrated that CAPE significantly improved the viability of LPS/IFN-γ-treated RAW 264.7 cells and significantly inhibited nitric oxide production with effects similar to those observed with an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (1400W). In addition, CAPE exclusively inhibited the synthesis of peroxynitrite from the artificial substrate SIN-1 and directly prevented the peroxynitrite-mediated conversion of dihydrorhodamine-123 to its fluorescent oxidation product rhodamine-123. In both sepsis models, CAPE inhibited cellular peroxynitrite synthesis, as evidenced by the absence of serum 3-nitrotyrosine, an in vivo marker of peroxynitrite. Thus, CAPE attenuates the inflammatory responses that lead to cell damage and, potentially, cell death through suppression of the production of cytotoxic molecules such as nitric oxide and peroxynitrite.
These observations provide evidence of the therapeutic potential of CAPE treatment for a wide range of inflammatory disorders.